Karstmodell Vorschau

Karst modelling Schalkauer Platte

Project lead

Content

Development of a karst model for the area of the Schalkauer Platte and the tunnel area of the Blessberg cave. Tunnel constructions are potentially at risk from water migration through the rock. Particularly in highly permeable karst, the modelling of water pathways is of great importance for hazard assessment. How does the karstification behaviour change due to large underground structures? How does water movement change due to concrete placement? Does groundwater quality possibly suffer? What are the effects of changing water flow in the Blessberg cave (and in other caves)? These and many other questions will be addressed with karst modelling.

Results

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FU Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences – Dynamics of the Earth Group

The group is analysing and modelling geodynamic processes that take place on and in the Earth, such as the development of aquifer systems (karstification, groundwater flow, …). Computer simulations are essentially used for this purpose.

A model for the simulationModell Ein Computermodell ist in der Regel eine Sammlung von vielen mathematischen Gleichungen, die verschiedene natürliche (physikalische, chemische, biologische) Vorgänge sehr gut mathematisch darstellen. Im Computer kann man das Modell mit verschiedenen Parameterwerten (z. B. verschiedene Häufigkeit von Klüften, verschiedene Temperatur) laufen lassen, wodurch man ein sehr gutes Verständnis der Zusammenhänge und Einflußfaktoren auf die zu untersuchenden Phänomene erhält. of karstification was developed and applied to the Blessberg cave.

Contact

Prof. Dr. Georg Kaufmann ↗

Web Site

https://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/en/geol/fachrichtungen/geophy/index.html ↗

Publications

Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko

Modelling long-term and short-term evolution of karst in vicinity of tunnels Journal Article

Journal of Hydrology, 581 , pp. 124282, 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko

Karst and trains: The challenge of railway tunneling Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2019-3554, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Modelling of karstification

Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko

Modelling long-term and short-term evolution of karst in vicinity of tunnels Journal Article

Journal of Hydrology, 581 , pp. 124282, 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko

Karst and trains: The challenge of railway tunneling Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2019-3554, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

The strength and speed of karstification depends on various parameters, such as water balance or the existing rocks. A karstification model was used to model how karstification had developed in the area of the Schalkauer Platte and how it will develop in the future.

The model shows regional differences in the karstification potential. Especially in the areas where the model calculated increased karstification, there are, indeed, more caves, including the Blessberg cave. The modelling of future karst development, especially in the area of the cave part under the tunnel that was blocked during tunnel construction, showed a substantial increase in karstification in this area, i.e., a faster widening of fissures and crevices (in the time frame of 100 to 200 years).

Biomineralisation of calcite by bacterial isolates

Keiner, Robert; Frosch, Torsten; Hanf, Stefan; Rusznyak, Anna; Akob, Denise M; Küsel, Kirsten; Popp, Jürgen

Raman Spectroscopy—An Innovative and Versatile Tool To Follow the Respirational Activity and Carbonate Biomineralization of Important Cave Bacteria Journal Article

Analytical Chemistry, 85 (18), pp. 8708–8714, 2013.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M; Nietzsche, Sándor; Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Neu, Thomas R; Frosch, Torsten; Popp, Jürgen; Keiner, Robert; Geletneky, Jörn; Katzschmann, Lutz; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Küsel, Kirsten

Calcite Biomineralization by Bacterial Isolates from the Recently Discovered Pristine Karstic Herrenberg Cave Journal Article

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (4), pp. 1157–1167, 2012.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Using stalactite material and fluvial sediments from the Blessberg cave, the diversity and activity of the occuring bacteria and their formation of carbonate minerals were investigated. For this purpose, various techniques such as phylogenetic analyses, bacterial cultivation, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used.

Bacteria were found on the surface and inside the stalactites using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Proteobacteria were most abundant in the bacterial communities on and inside the stalactites and also in the fluvial sediments, but also other groups such as Actinobacteria or FirmicutesFirmicutes Eine artenreiche Gruppe innerhalb der Bakterien. Unterscheiden sich von den Actinobakterien unter anderem durch ihren niedrigeren Gehalt an Nukleinbasen in der Bakterien-DNS.. Many of the detected bacteria have not yet been cultivated.

A total of nine new bacterial cultures were isolated from the cave sediments, growing on alkaline carbonate-precipitating medium and belonging to the bacterial genera Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Serratia and Stenotrophomonas. Of these, the two with the most intense precipitate formation were selected for further research: Arthrobacter sulfonivorans SCM3 and Rhodococcus globerulus SCM4. Both produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and grew as cell aggregates.

Scanning electron microscopy of cell aggregates and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of the isolates Arthrobacter sulfonivorans SCM3 and Rhodococcus globerulus SCM4
Scanning electron microscopy of cell aggregates and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of the isolates Arthrobacter sulfonivorans SCM3 (left) and Rhodococcus globerulus SCM4 (right) (Image: Elektronenmikroskopisches Zentrum Jena, Sándor Nietzsche and Anna Rusznyak).

The carbonate minerals formed were mixtures of calcite, vaterite, and monohydrocalcite. Arthrobacter sulfonivorans SCM3 formed xenomorphic spherical crystals, and Rhodococcus globerulus SCM4 idiomorphic crystals with rhombohedral morphology.

The biomineralisation process of Arthrobacter sulfonivorans SCM3 was further investigated using a combination of Raman macro- and microspectroscopy to obtain a spatially resolved chemical representation of the different types of calcium carbonate minerals. The cell surface of Arthrobacter sulfonivorans SCM3 served as a nucleus for the biomineralisation of vaterite precipitates. These were initially spherical and then continued to grow as chemically stable, rock-forming calcite crystals with rough edges.

Scanning electron microscopy of precipitates of the isolates Arthrobacter sulfonivorans SCM3 and Rhodococcus globerulus SCM4
Scanning electron microscopy of precipitates of the isolates Arthrobacter sulfonivorans SCM3 (left) and Rhodococcus globerulus SCM4 (right) (Image: Elektronenmikroskopisches Zentrum Jena, Sándor Nietzsche and Anna Rusznyak).

First Reconstruction of the Holocene Climate

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Wenz, Sarah; Leonhardt, Jens; Tjallingii, Rik; Scholz, Denis; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Marwan, Norbert

A multi-proxy reconstruction of Holocene climate change from Blessberg Cave, Germany Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2016-14213, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

The first results of the geochemical analyses of the three stalagmites BB-1 to BB-3 already allow conclusions about the climatic changes of the last 14,000 years. A detailed interpretation can be found in the article Climate zone shift in Central Europe.

First results of analyses of BB-1 to BB-3
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Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry – Group Environmental and Atmospheric Chemistry

The main areas of research of the group are in the field of organic and inorganic trace analysis by using and further developing mass spectrometric methods, often in combination with chromatographic methods.

The group participates in the research in the Blessberg cave by reconstructing the vegetation above the cave by analysing biopolymers in stalagmites and by analysing biochemical fire markers in soil, water, and stalagmite samples.

Contact

Prof. Dr. Thorsten Hoffmann ↗

Web site

https://www.blogs.uni-mainz.de/fb09-ac-hoffmann-eng/ ↗

Publications

Isolat und Präzipitate (Vorschau)

Diversity and role of cave bacteria in the formation of carbonate minerals

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within the framework of the research project “AquaDiv@Jena”, funded by the ProExcellence Initiative of the Free State of Thuringia, and the Collaborative Research Centre 1076 “AquaDiva ↗“, funded by the DFG

Project Lead

Content

What biodiversity do we find in subsurface habitats such as caves? What role do bacteria play in the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles? Which bacteria are involved in the formation of minerals?

Karst areas are particularly interesting subsurface habitats because they represent one of the most important natural subsurface reservoirs of carbon on Earth. Caves are like a window into these subsurface habitats and allow the exploration of subsurface microbial life. However, it can be difficult to distinguish between microbial communities that are pristine or indigenous and those that have been introduced into caves by animals and humans. The Blessberg cave provides a unique pristine site for the study of active bacterial communities in a karst system.

Using stalactite material and fluvialfluvial Durch fließendes Wasser verursacht; zum Beispiel: "Fluviale Sedimente" = durch fließendes Wasser abgelagertes Material. sediments from the Blessberg cave, the diversity and activity of the occurring bacteria and their formation of carbonate minerals are being investigated. For this purpose, a wide variety of techniques such as phylogenetic analyses, bacterial cultivation, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are applied.

Carbonate precipitates of the bacterial isolate Rhodococcus globerulus SCM4
Carbonate precipitates of the bacterial isolate Rhodococcus globerulus SCM4 from the Blessberg cave. EDX mapping underlain by a gray level scanning electron microscopy image; the false colors red, green, and blue show the local occurrence of the elements carbon, oxygen, and calcium, respectively (Image: Elektronenmikroskopisches Zentrum Jena, Sándor Nietzsche and Anna Rusznyak).

Results

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Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Biodiversity – Group of Aquatic Geomicrobiology

The Aquatic Geomicrobiology group exists since 2004 and is headed by Prof. Dr. Kirsten Küsel. The group is has a focus on the role of microorganisms that are driving the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Here, microbes are also involved in mediating mineral precipitation and dissolution as well as the sorption of organic material. The research covers the areas of biodiversity, microbial interactions, climate change mitigation, mining, and the deep biosphere.

In the context of the research project “AquaDiv@Jena” and the CRC 1076 “AquaDiva” ↗, the diversity and activity of the bacteria contained in the Blessberg cave and their formation of carbonate minerals were investigated.

Contact

Prof. Dr. Kirsten Küsel ↗

Web Site

https://www.geomicrobiology.uni-jena.de/ ↗

Publications

Keiner, Robert; Frosch, Torsten; Hanf, Stefan; Rusznyak, Anna; Akob, Denise M; Küsel, Kirsten; Popp, Jürgen

Raman Spectroscopy—An Innovative and Versatile Tool To Follow the Respirational Activity and Carbonate Biomineralization of Important Cave Bacteria Journal Article

Analytical Chemistry, 85 (18), pp. 8708–8714, 2013.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M; Nietzsche, Sándor; Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Neu, Thomas R; Frosch, Torsten; Popp, Jürgen; Keiner, Robert; Geletneky, Jörn; Katzschmann, Lutz; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Küsel, Kirsten

Calcite Biomineralization by Bacterial Isolates from the Recently Discovered Pristine Karstic Herrenberg Cave Journal Article

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (4), pp. 1157–1167, 2012.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Sedimente vorschau

Carbon isotope monitoring

Project Lead

Involved Partners

Content

Constraining the response of carbon dynamics in the terrestrial system to climate warming are crucial for improved model-based predictions.

We aim to significantly improve our knowledge of terrestrial carbon dynamics in karst environments and their response, in particular of organic carbon reservoirs deep down in the karst, to climate variability. This goal will be obtained by combining novel information on C-cycling in contemporary karst systems with information on past C-cycle dynamics from speleothems:

  1. Investigating C dynamics in cave environments, in particular the size and role of present-day deep organic carbon (OC) in karst systems through extensive C monitoring. This will cover regular sampling of cave air and air outside the cave, soil air, drip water, soil leachate, karst CO2, and recent cave carbonates. Additionally, organic carbon along soil profiles from above the cave will be investigated. We will perform analyses of CO2 concentrations (where applicable) as well as δ13C and 14C signature on a monthly basis during two years. Contemporaneous speleothems will be analyzed using the novel LA-AMSLA-AMS Laser ablation mass spectrometry … technique.
  2. Understanding how speleothems record surface (vegetation) and subsurface (soil, karst) C cycling to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems, especially of the deep OC reservoir, to past climate shifts. For this, we will perform spatially resolved 14C analyses on speleothems covering past rapid climate shifts (< 25 ka BPka BP Mit "ka BP" sind "Tausend Jahre vor 1950" gemeint. Das "BP" steht für "before present", was in der Paläoklima-Wissenschaft als 1950 festgelegt wurde. "11.000 ka BP" bedeuted also 11 Tausend Jahre vor 1950, oder unter Verwendung unseres gewohnten Kalenders: 9050 v. Chr.).