First Reconstruction of the Holocene Climate

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Wenz, Sarah; Leonhardt, Jens; Tjallingii, Rik; Scholz, Denis; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Marwan, Norbert

A multi-proxy reconstruction of Holocene climate change from Blessberg Cave, Germany Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2016-14213, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

The first results of the geochemical analyses of the three stalagmites BB-1 to BB-3 already allow conclusions about the climatic changes of the last 14,000 years. A detailed interpretation can be found in the article Climate zone shift in Central Europe.

First results of analyses of BB-1 to BB-3
Sedimente vorschau

Carbon isotope monitoring

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Constraining the response of carbon dynamics in the terrestrial system to climate warming are crucial for improved model-based predictions.

We aim to significantly improve our knowledge of terrestrial carbon dynamics in karst environments and their response, in particular of organic carbon reservoirs deep down in the karst, to climate variability. This goal will be obtained by combining novel information on C-cycling in contemporary karst systems with information on past C-cycle dynamics from speleothems:

  1. Investigating C dynamics in cave environments, in particular the size and role of present-day deep organic carbon (OC) in karst systems through extensive C monitoring. This will cover regular sampling of cave air and air outside the cave, soil air, drip water, soil leachate, karst CO2, and recent cave carbonates. Additionally, organic carbon along soil profiles from above the cave will be investigated. We will perform analyses of CO2 concentrations (where applicable) as well as δ13C and 14C signature on a monthly basis during two years. Contemporaneous speleothems will be analyzed using the novel LA-AMSLA-AMS Laser ablation mass spectrometry … technique.
  2. Understanding how speleothems record surface (vegetation) and subsurface (soil, karst) C cycling to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems, especially of the deep OC reservoir, to past climate shifts. For this, we will perform spatially resolved 14C analyses on speleothems covering past rapid climate shifts (< 25 ka BPka BP Mit "ka BP" sind "Tausend Jahre vor 1950" gemeint. Das "BP" steht für "before present", was in der Paläoklima-Wissenschaft als 1950 festgelegt wurde. "11.000 ka BP" bedeuted also 11 Tausend Jahre vor 1950, oder unter Verwendung unseres gewohnten Kalenders: 9050 v. Chr.).
Monitoring vorschau

Monitoring

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Involved Partners

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For the quantitative reconstruction of past moisture regimes, detailed measurements of the environmental conditions in the cave, in the ground, and on the surface are carried out. This programme is led by Northumbria Uni and gets support from all sides, especially from the cavers on site. In the cave, water samples are mainly collected for stable isotopeIsotop Chemische Elemente können aus verschieden aufgebauten Atomen gebildet sein. Die Anzahl Protonen im Atomkern ist zwar dabei gleich, aber die Anzahl der Neutronen kann variieren. Man spricht dann von Isotopen, deren Massen kleine, aber messbare Unterschiede aufweisen. Der Atomkern des Sauerstoffs besteht z. B. aus 8 Protonen und in der Regel aus 8 Neutronen. Es gibt aber auch Sauerstoff, dessen Kerne aus 8 Protonen und 9 oder 10 Neutronen bestehen (neben selteneren, instabilen Sauerstoffisotopen). Um das zu kennzeichnen, gibt man zusätzlich zum chemischen Symbol noch die Massenzahl (Summe aus Protonen und Neutronen) an, also 16O, 17O oder 18O. Die unterschiedlichen Isotope verhalten sich zwar chemisch identisch, physikalisch aber - aufgrund ihres unterschiedlichen Gewichtes - leicht unterschiedlich. Damit stellen sie äusserst wertvolle Marker dar, die uns wichtige Hinweise zur Änderung des Klimas, der Umgebungsvegetation, Bodenaktivität und vielem mehr geben. analysis (δD and δ18O) and a number of parameters are measured, such as air and water temperature in the cave, water pressure, pCO2 and drip rates. At the surface, air temperature and soil temperatures are measured at different depths. In addition, carbonate is collected on watch glasses in the cave to support calibration studies and to better understand the growth dynamics of the stalagmites.

Logo GFZ

Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ) – Group stable isotopes (sediments and water)

The Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam is a non-university research institute that conducts research on the dynamics of the solid earth. It was founded in 1992 and is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.

The GFZ participates in research in the Bleßberg Cave through geochemical analyses of drip water and stalagmites.

Contact

Dr. Birgit Plessen ↗

Web site

https://www.gfz-potsdam.de/ ↗

Publications

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Waltgenbach, Sarah; Tjallingii, Rik; Leonhardt, Jens; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Meyer, Hanno; Goswami, Bedartha; Marwan, Norbert; Scholz, Denis

Holocene interaction of maritime and continental climate in Central Europe: New speleothem evidence from Central Germany Journal Article

Global and Planetary Change, 176 , pp. 144–161, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Waltgenbach, Sarah; Tjallingii, Rik; Leonhardt, Jens; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Meyer, Hanno; Marwan, Norbert; Scholz, Denis

Tracing past shifts of the boundary between maritime and continental climate over Central Europe Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2018-9046, 2018.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Wenz, Sarah; Leonhardt, Jens; Tjallingii, Rik; Scholz, Denis; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Marwan, Norbert

A multi-proxy reconstruction of Holocene climate change from Blessberg Cave, Germany Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2016-14213, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Wenz, Sarah; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph; Plessen, Birgit; Mischel, Simon; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Fohlmeister, Jens

Timing and duration of climate variability during the 8.2 ka event reconstructed from four speleothems from Germany Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2016-12731, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Marwan, Norbert; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Scholz, Denis; Leonhardt, Jens

Recurrence properties as signatures for abrupt climate change Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2014-8893, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Logo Univ Mainz

Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Institute of Geosciences – Isotope-geochemical Palaeoclimatology/Speleothem Research

The IsotopeIsotop Chemische Elemente können aus verschieden aufgebauten Atomen gebildet sein. Die Anzahl Protonen im Atomkern ist zwar dabei gleich, aber die Anzahl der Neutronen kann variieren. Man spricht dann von Isotopen, deren Massen kleine, aber messbare Unterschiede aufweisen. Der Atomkern des Sauerstoffs besteht z. B. aus 8 Protonen und in der Regel aus 8 Neutronen. Es gibt aber auch Sauerstoff, dessen Kerne aus 8 Protonen und 9 oder 10 Neutronen bestehen (neben selteneren, instabilen Sauerstoffisotopen). Um das zu kennzeichnen, gibt man zusätzlich zum chemischen Symbol noch die Massenzahl (Summe aus Protonen und Neutronen) an, also 16O, 17O oder 18O. Die unterschiedlichen Isotope verhalten sich zwar chemisch identisch, physikalisch aber - aufgrund ihres unterschiedlichen Gewichtes - leicht unterschiedlich. Damit stellen sie äusserst wertvolle Marker dar, die uns wichtige Hinweise zur Änderung des Klimas, der Umgebungsvegetation, Bodenaktivität und vielem mehr geben.-geochemical Palaeoclimatology/Speleothem Research Group exists since September 2009 and is led by Prof. Dr. Denis Scholz. The major goal of the group is the reconstruction of past climate variability. We mainly use speleothems, such as stalagmites, stalactites and flowstones, as climate archives, which are secondary carbonates found in caves.

The group performs research in the Bleßberg Cave by dating and geochemical analyses of stalagmites.

Contact

Prof. Dr. Denis Scholz ↗

Web site

https://www.geowiss.uni-mainz.de/isotopengeochemische-palaeoklimatologie-spelaeothemforschung/ ↗

Publications

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Waltgenbach, Sarah; Tjallingii, Rik; Leonhardt, Jens; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Meyer, Hanno; Goswami, Bedartha; Marwan, Norbert; Scholz, Denis

Holocene interaction of maritime and continental climate in Central Europe: New speleothem evidence from Central Germany Journal Article

Global and Planetary Change, 176 , pp. 144–161, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Waltgenbach, Sarah; Tjallingii, Rik; Leonhardt, Jens; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Meyer, Hanno; Marwan, Norbert; Scholz, Denis

Tracing past shifts of the boundary between maritime and continental climate over Central Europe Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2018-9046, 2018.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Wenz, Sarah; Leonhardt, Jens; Tjallingii, Rik; Scholz, Denis; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Marwan, Norbert

A multi-proxy reconstruction of Holocene climate change from Blessberg Cave, Germany Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2016-14213, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Wenz, Sarah; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph; Plessen, Birgit; Mischel, Simon; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Fohlmeister, Jens

Timing and duration of climate variability during the 8.2 ka event reconstructed from four speleothems from Germany Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2016-12731, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Marwan, Norbert; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Scholz, Denis; Leonhardt, Jens

Recurrence properties as signatures for abrupt climate change Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2014-8893, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Logo Northumbria Univ

Northumbria University Newcastle, Geography and Environmental Sciences – Cold and Palaeo Environments Group

The Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences at Northumbria University in Newcastle upon Tyne includes research groups focusing on our Planet’s past, present, and future. The Cold and Palaeo Environments Group (CAPE) particularly aims at understanding the interaction between ancient biosphere, atmosphere, and cryosphere over the last 50 million years.

The group uses state-of-the-art geochemical methods, microfossil analyses, numerical models, and field studies to improve our understanding of the Earth system. The new Northumbria IsotopeIsotop Chemische Elemente können aus verschieden aufgebauten Atomen gebildet sein. Die Anzahl Protonen im Atomkern ist zwar dabei gleich, aber die Anzahl der Neutronen kann variieren. Man spricht dann von Isotopen, deren Massen kleine, aber messbare Unterschiede aufweisen. Der Atomkern des Sauerstoffs besteht z. B. aus 8 Protonen und in der Regel aus 8 Neutronen. Es gibt aber auch Sauerstoff, dessen Kerne aus 8 Protonen und 9 oder 10 Neutronen bestehen (neben selteneren, instabilen Sauerstoffisotopen). Um das zu kennzeichnen, gibt man zusätzlich zum chemischen Symbol noch die Massenzahl (Summe aus Protonen und Neutronen) an, also 16O, 17O oder 18O. Die unterschiedlichen Isotope verhalten sich zwar chemisch identisch, physikalisch aber - aufgrund ihres unterschiedlichen Gewichtes - leicht unterschiedlich. Damit stellen sie äusserst wertvolle Marker dar, die uns wichtige Hinweise zur Änderung des Klimas, der Umgebungsvegetation, Bodenaktivität und vielem mehr geben. and Clumped geothermometryClumped geothermometry Clumped geothermometry … for Environmental Studies (NICEST) laboratory uses stable isotope systems (δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, δ2H, and Δ47) to explore terrestrial, lacustrine, and marine carbonate systems in search of past climatic and environmental changes.

The geochemistry of speleothems helps reconstruct past hydrological changes. To quantify such changes, the lab analyses is combined with environmental monitoring. The group also works closely with other teams (e.g., the Alfred-Wegener Institute (AWI), PIK Potsdam, Waikato University, University of Oxford, and many others) to develop new quantitative proxiesProxy Umwelt- und Klimainformationen aus der Vergangenheit sind nicht direkt verfügbar, weil niemand da war, der diese messen und aufzeichnen konnte. Daher ist  man darauf angewiesen, diese Informationen indirekt aus anderen Informationen abzuleiten, wie z. B. Baumringe, das Verhältnis von Sauerstoffisotopen, Spurenelementen, Mächtigkeit von Sedimentschichten usw. Diese Art von Daten nennt man Proxies, was aus dem englischen stammt und „Stellvertreter“ bedeutet. and techniques to learn more about Earth’s history.

A very strong focus is on past permafrostPermafrost Unter Permafrost versteht man dauerhaft gefrorenen Boden, der auch im Sommer nicht auftaut. In Mitteleuropa gab es während den Eiszeiten Permafrost. dynamics; in a new project funded by The Leverhulme Trust ↗, Seb Breitenbach investigates the last 500,000 years of Siberian permafrost with the help of cave deposits, permafrost ice, and fossil ostracod shells.

Contact

Dr. Sebastian Breitenbach ↗

Web site

https://research.northumbria.ac.uk/coldandpalaeo/ ↗

Publikationen

Marwan, Norbert; Kraemer, Kai Hauke; Wiesner, Karolin; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Leonhardt, Jens

Recurrence based entropies Presentation

07.05.2019, (Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Nonlinear Mechanics, Łódz (Poland)).

Abstract | BibTeX

Marwan, Norbert; Kraemer, Kai Hauke; Wiesner, Karolin; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Leonhardt, Jens

Recurrence based entropies Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2019-2817, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Waltgenbach, Sarah; Tjallingii, Rik; Leonhardt, Jens; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Meyer, Hanno; Goswami, Bedartha; Marwan, Norbert; Scholz, Denis

Holocene interaction of maritime and continental climate in Central Europe: New speleothem evidence from Central Germany Journal Article

Global and Planetary Change, 176 , pp. 144–161, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Waltgenbach, Sarah; Tjallingii, Rik; Leonhardt, Jens; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Meyer, Hanno; Marwan, Norbert; Scholz, Denis

Tracing past shifts of the boundary between maritime and continental climate over Central Europe Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2018-9046, 2018.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Wenz, Sarah; Leonhardt, Jens; Tjallingii, Rik; Scholz, Denis; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Marwan, Norbert

A multi-proxy reconstruction of Holocene climate change from Blessberg Cave, Germany Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2016-14213, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Wenz, Sarah; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph; Plessen, Birgit; Mischel, Simon; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Fohlmeister, Jens

Timing and duration of climate variability during the 8.2 ka event reconstructed from four speleothems from Germany Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2016-12731, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Marwan, Norbert; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Scholz, Denis; Leonhardt, Jens

Recurrence properties as signatures for abrupt climate change Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2014-8893, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Logo LIAG

Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics Hannover (LIAG) – Section 3: Geochronology

The LIAG is a non-university research institute in Hanover, which is concerned with the exploration of the usable subsurface as well as the development of geophysical measurement and evaluation methods. The institute looks back on more than 50 years of experience in geophysical research.

The section Geochronology is specialised in Quaternary geochronology using luminescence and electron spin resonance (ESRElektronenspinresonanz-Datierung Eine physikalische Datierungsmethode, die darauf beruht, daß die Menge magnetischer Anomalien im Probenmaterial proportional zur Lagerungszeit im Sediment ist.) methods. For Blessberg Cave the group is testing thermoluminescence (TL) dating of speleothems, which has a potential to date calcite up to ~2 million years. It is also planned to contribute in dating cave sediments.

Contact

Dr. Sumiko Tsukamoto ↗

Web Site

https://www.leibniz-liag.de ↗

Publications

Sierralta, Melanie; Katzschmann, Lutz; Nikonow, Wilhelm; Rammlmair, Dieter

Insights in Bleßberg cave: Speleothem chronology and geochemical research Inproceedings

75. Jahrestagung der Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft in Hannover, 2015.

Abstract | BibTeX

Climate Zone Shift in central Europe

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Waltgenbach, Sarah; Tjallingii, Rik; Leonhardt, Jens; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Meyer, Hanno; Goswami, Bedartha; Marwan, Norbert; Scholz, Denis

Holocene interaction of maritime and continental climate in Central Europe: New speleothem evidence from Central Germany Journal Article

Global and Planetary Change, 176 , pp. 144–161, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Plessen, Birgit; Wenz, Sarah; Leonhardt, Jens; Tjallingii, Rik; Scholz, Denis; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Marwan, Norbert

A multi-proxy reconstruction of Holocene climate change from Blessberg Cave, Germany Inproceedings

Geophysical Research Abstracts, pp. EGU2016-14213, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

BB-1, BB-2 and BB-3.
BB-1, BB-2 and BB-3.

The three stalagmites BB-1 to BB-3 were geochemically investigated by GFZ Potsdam, Ruhr-Uni Bochum, PIK Potsdam, Uni Mainz and Northumbria University.

The dating was done at the University of Mainz. Stalagmite BB-1 grew 5,600 to 600 years ago, BB-2 6,200 to 3,700 years ago, and BB-3 (although the shortest) 11,200 to 5,300 years ago. At GFZ, carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) were measured in over 1,000 samples in BB-1, and about 400 and 540 samples each in BB-2 and BB-3. In parallel, the distribution of various elements was measured by X-ray analysis. Age modelling and statistical analysis were carried out at Ruhr-Uni Bochum, PIK Potsdam and Northumbria University.

In the age models of stalagmites BB-1 and BB-3, abrupt changes from slow to fast growth are evident at about 5,900 BC and from fast to more slow growth at about 2,600 BC.

Age model of BB-1 and BB-3
Age models of stalagmites BB-1 and BB-3. Changes in growth rates at around 6,200 BC and between 5,900 and 2,600 BC can clearly be seen, for which climatic changes are responsible.

The temporal changes in isotope ratios were compared with palaeoclimate data from the Bunker Cave in North Rhine-Westphalia and from Greenland.

Carbon and oxygen istotopes of BB-1 and BB-3
Isotope ratios in stalagmites BB-1 and BB-3 (combined). The longer-term trends probably reflect a change in solar influence. The short-term climate cooling around 6,200 BC is clearly visible in the isotope ratios. The abrupt drop in δ18O values around 900 to 1,200 AD coincides with the Medieval Warm Period.

This comparison allows an estimation of the spatial distribution of the influence of the maritime, humid and warm Atlantic climate in Central Europe. The Blessberg cave is located at the border between the influence of the Atlantic climate and the continental, drier and colder climate from the east. From the alternation between stronger similarities and greater differences in the regional climate at the Blessberg Cave and the Bunker Cave it can be determined when the climate zone boundary was east or west of the Bleßberg Cave, i.e. when the Atlantic, wetter and warmer climate and when the colder and drier continental climate prevailed over the Bleßberg Cave. This analysis could be carried out back to about 4,000 years ago (i.e. about 2050 BC). Before this time, due to the lack of data from Greenland, it is not yet possible to make conclusions regarding the location of the climate zone boundary, but at least around this time the Bleßberg Cave was probably under the influence of the Atlantic climate. Around 1850 BC it then changed to a continental climate (in the late Aunjetitz culture, known from the Nebra sky disc). Between 950 and 850 BC, the Atlantic influence became more dominant again (towards the end of the Urnfield Culture).

Karte der Verlagerung der Klimazonengrenze.
Shift of the climate zone boundary (dashed) to the east with hypothetical course (dotted) at the time of the Urnfield Culture (BU – Bunker Cave, BBH – Blessberg Cave).